Liquid Crystal Displays

Liquid Crystal Displays

Addressing Schemes and Electro-Optical Effects

John Wiley and Sons Ltd

05/2022

640

Dura

Inglês

9781119667919

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Series Editor's Preface to the Third Edition Foreword to the Second Edition Preface to the Third Edition Preface to the Second Edition Preface to the First Edition About the Authors 1 Introduction 1 2 Liquid Crystal Materials and Liquid Crystal Cells 3 2.1 Properties of Liquid Crystals 3 2.1.1 Shape and phases of liquid crystals 3 2.1.2 Material properties of anisotropic liquid crystals 6 2.2 The Operation of a Twisted Nematic LCD 11 2.2.1 The electro-optical effects in transmissive twisted nematic LC cells 11 2.2.2 The addressing of LCDs by TFTs 18 3 Electro-optic Effects in Untwisted Nematic Liquid Crystals 21 3.1 The Planar and Harmonic Wave of Light 21 3.2 Propagation of Polarized Light in Birefringent Untwisted Nematic Liquid Crystal Cells 26 3.2.1 The propagation of light in a Freedericksz cell 26 3.2.2 The transmissive Freedericksz cell 31 3.2.3 The reflective Freedericksz cell 37 3.2.4 The Freedericksz cell as a phase-only modulator 39 3.2.5 The DAP cell or the vertically aligned cell 42 3.2.6 The HAN cell 44 3.2.7 The p cell 46 3.2.8 Switching dynamics of untwisted nematic LCDs 48 3.2.9 Fast blue phase liquid crystals 54 4 Electro-optic Effects in Twisted Nematic Liquid Crystals 57 4.1 The Propagation of Polarized Light in Twisted Nematic Liquid Crystal Cells 57 COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL 4.2 The Various Types of TN Cells 67 4.2.1 The regular TN cell 67 4.2.2 The supertwisted nematic LC cell (STN-LCD) 70 4.2.3 The mixed mode twisted nematic cell (MTN cell) 74 4.2.4 Reflective TN cells 76 4.3 Electronically Controlled Birefringence for the Generation of Colour 80 5 Descriptions of Polarization 83 5.1 The Characterizations of Polarization 83 5.2 A Differential Equation for the Propagation of Polarized Light through Anisotropic Media 91 5.3 Special Cases for Propagation of Light 95 5.3.1 Incidence of linearly polarized light 95 5.3.2 Incident light is circularly polarized 97 6 Propagation of Light with an Arbitrary Incident Angle through Anisotropic Media 99 6.1 Basic Equations for the Propagation of Light 99 6.2 Enhancement of the Performance of LC Cells 107 6.2.1 The degradation of picture quality 107 6.2.2 Optical compensation foils for the enhancement of picture quality 109 6.2.2.1 The enhancement of contrast 109 6.2.2.2 Compensation foils for LC molecules with different optical axis 110 6.2.3 Suppression of grey shade inversion and the preservation of grey shade stability 115 6.2.4 Fabrication of compensation foils 116 6.3 Electro-optic Effects with Wide Viewing Angle 116 6.3.1 Multidomain pixels 116 6.3.2 In-plane switching 117 6.3.3 Optically compensated bend cells 119 6.4 Multidomain VA Cells, Especially for TV 121 6.4.1 The torque generated by an electric field 122 6.4.2 The requirements for a VA display, especially for TV 124 6.4.2.1 The speeds of operation 124 6.4.2.2 Colour shift, change in contrast and image sticking 124 6.4.3 VA cells for TV applications 129 6.4.3.1 Multidomain VA cells with protrusions (MVAs) 129 6.4.3.2 Patterned VA cells (PVAs) 130 6.4.3.3 PVA cells with two subpixels (CS-S-PVAs) 132 6.4.3.4 Cell technologies avoiding a delayed optical response 136 - Polymer sustained alignment (PSA) 136 - Mountain shaped cell surface 137 6.4.3.5 The continuous pinwheel alignment (CPA) 139 6.5 Polarizers with Increased Luminous Output 140 6.5.1 A reflective linear polarizer 140 6.5.2 A reflective polarizer working with circularly polarized light 141 6.6 Two Non-birefringent Foils 142 7 Modified Nematic Liquid Crystal Displays 145 7.1 Polymer Dispersed LCDs (PDLCDs) 145 7.1.1 The operation of a PDLCD 145 7.1.2 Applications of PDLCDs 149 7.2 Guest-Host Displays 150 7.2.1 The operation of Guest-Host Displays 150 7.2.2 Reflective Guest-Host Displays 154 8 Bistable Liquid Crystal Displays 159 8.1 Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Displays (FLCDs) 159 8.2 Chiral Nematic Liquid Crystal Displays 168 8.3 Bistable Nematic Liquid Crystal Displays 174 8.3.1 Bistable twist cells 174 8.3.2 Grating aligned nematic devices 175 8.3.3 Monostable surface anchoring switching 177 9 Continuously Light Modulating Ferroelectric Displays 179 9.1 Deformed Helix Ferroelectric Devices 179 9.2 Antiferroelectric LCDs 181 10 Addressing Schemes for Liquid Crystal Displays 185 11 Direct Addressing 189 12 Passive Matrix Addressing of TN Displays 191 12.1 The Basic Addressing Scheme and the Law of Alt and Pleshko 191 12.2 Implementation of PM Addressing 196 12.3 Multiple Line Addressing 201 12.3.1 The basic equations 201 12.3.2 Waveforms for the row selection 203 12.3.3 Column voltage for MLA 205 12.3.4 Implementation of multi-line addressing 206 12.3.5 Modified PM addressing of STN cells 210 12.3.5.1 Decreased levels of addressing voltages 210 12.3.5.2 Contrast and grey shades for MLA 212 12.4 Two Frequency Driving of PMLCDs 218 13 Passive Matrix Addressing of Bistable Displays 223 13.1 Addressing of Ferroelectric LCDs 223 13.1.1 The V-tmin addressing scheme 225 13.1.2 The V-1/t addressing scheme 226 13.1.3 Reducing crosstalk in FLCDs 228 13.1.4 Ionic effects during addressing 228 13.2 Addressing of Chiral Nematic Liquid Crystal Displays 231 14 Addressing of Liquid Crystal Displays with a-Si Thin Film Transistors (a-Si-TFTs) 239 14.1 Properties of a-Si Thin Film Transistors 239 14.2 Static Operation of TFTs in an LCD 244 14.3 The Dynamics of Switching by TFTs 252 14.4 Bias-Temperature Stress Test of TFTs 259 14.5 Drivers for AMLCDs 260 14.6 The Entire Addressing System 266 14.7 Layouts of Pixels with TFT Switches 269 14.8 Fabrication Processes of a-Si TFTs 272 14.9 Addressing of VA Displays 277 14.9.1 Overshoot and undershoot driving of LCDs 277 14.9.2 The dynamic capacitance compensation (DCC) 281 14.9.3 Fringe field accelerated decay of luminance 288 14.9.4 The addressing of two subpixels 292 14.9.5 Biased vertical alignment (BVA) 295 14.10 Motion Blur 298 14.10.1 Causes, characterization and remedies of blur 298 14.10.2 Systems with decreased blur 310 14.10.2.1 Edge enhancement for reduced blur 310 14.10.2.2 Black insertion techniques 312 14.10.2.3 Scanning backlights 313 14.10.2.4 Higher frame rates for reducing blur 315 14.10.3 Modelling of blur 320 14.11 The Optical Response of a VA Cell 329 14.12 Reduction of the Optical Response Time by a Special Addressing Waveform 334 15 Addressing of LCDs with Poly-Si TFTs 339 15.1 Fabrication Steps for Top- and Bottom-Gate Poly-Si TFTs 340 15.2 Laser Crystallization by Scanning or Large Area Anneal 344 15.3 Lightly Doped Drains for Poly-Si TFTs 345 15.4 The Kink Effect and its Suppression 347 15.5 Circuits with Poly-Si TFTs 349 16 Liquid Crystal on Silicon Displays 353 16.1 Fabrication of LCOS with DRAM-Type Analog Addressing 353 16.2 SRAM-Type Digital Addressing of LCOS 355 16.3 Microdisplays Using LCOS Technology 360 17 Addressing of Liquid Crystal Displays with Metal-Insulator-Metal Pixel Switches 363 18 Addressing of LCDs with Two-Terminal Devices and Optical, Plasma, Laser and e-beam Techniques 373 19 Components of LCD Cells 381 19.1 Additive Colours Generated by Absorptive Photosensitive Pigmented Colour Filters 381 19.2 Additive and Subtractive Colours Generated by Reflective Dichroic Colour Filters 383 19.3 Colour Generation by Three Stacked Displays 385 19.4 LED Backlights 386 19.4.1 The advantages of LEDs as backlights 386 19.4.2 LED technology 386 19.4.3 Optics for LED backlights 395 19.4.4 Special applications for LED backlights 405 19.4.4.1 Saving power and realizing scanning with LED backlights 405 19.4.4.2 Field sequential displays with LED backlights 407 19.4.4.3 Active matrix addressed LED backlights 409 19.4.5 The electronic addressing of LEDs 409 19.5 Cell Assembly 411 20 Projectors with Liquid Crystal Light Valves 415 20.1 Single Transmissive Light Valve Systems 415 20.1.1 The basic single light valve system 415 20.1.2 The field sequential colour projector 416 20.1.3 A single panel scrolling projector 417 20.1.4 Single light valve projector with angular colour separation 418 20.1.5 Single light valve projectors with a colour grating 418 20.2 Systems with Three Light Valves 420 20.2.1 Projectors with three transmissive light valves 420 20.2.2 Projectors with three reflective light valves 421 20.2.3 Projectors with three LCOS light valves 422 20.3 Projectors with Two LC Light Valves 422 20.4 A Rear Projector with One or Three Light Valves 422 20.5 A Projector with Three Optically Addressed Light Valves 423 21 Liquid Crystal Displays with Plastic Substrates 427 21.1 Advantages of Plastic Substrates 427 21.2 Plastic Substrates and their Properties 428 21.3 Barrier Layers for Plastic Substrates 429 21.4 Thermo-Mechanical Problems with Plastics 430 21.5 Fabrication of TFTs and MIMs at Low Process Temperatures 435 21.5.1 Fabrication of a-Si:H TFTs at low temperature 435 21.5.2 Fabrication of low temperature poly-Si TFTs 435 21.5.3 Fabrication of MIMs at low temperature 437 21.5.4 Conductors and transparent electrodes for plastic substrates 438 21.6 Transfer of High Temperature Fabricated AMLCDs to a Flexible Substrate 438 22 Printing of Layers for LC Cells 443 22.1 Printing Technologies 443 22.1.1 Flexographic printing 443 22.1.2 Knife coating 444 22.1.3 Ink-jet printing 444 22.1.4 Silk screen printing 448 22.2 Surface Properties for Printing 449 22.3 Printing of Components for Displays 455 22.3.1 Ink-jet printed colour filters, alignment layers and phosphors for LED Backlights 455 22.3.2 Flexographic printing of alignment layers and of nematic liquid crystals 456 22.3.3 Printing of OTFTs 457 22.4 Cell Building by Lamination 461 23 Advances in TFTs and Structures for Enhancing Mobility 24 Fringe-Field Switching (FFS) Technologies 25 Automotive Applications of Liquid Crystal Displays Appendix 1: Formats of Flat Panel Displays 463 Appendix 2: Optical Units of Displays 465 Appendix 3: Properties of Polarized Light 467 References 473 Index
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liquid crystal displays; LCD addressing; LCD electro-optical effects; LCD structure; TFT-LCD; liquid crystal cells; LCD reference; LCD textbook; LCD polarization; LCD applications; LCD automotive; LCD VR displays; LCD AR displays; LCD components