Understanding Physics 3e

Understanding Physics 3e

John Wiley and Sons Ltd

07/2020

656

Mole

Inglês

9781119519508

15 a 20 dias

1836

Descrição não disponível.
Preface to third edition xv 1 Understanding the physical universe 1 1.1 The programme of physics 1 1.2 The building blocks of matter 2 1.3 Matter in bulk 4 1.4 The fundamental interactions 5 1.5 Exploring the physical universe: the scientific method 5 1.6 The role of physics; its scope and applications 7 2 Using mathematical tools in physics 9 2.1 Applying the scientific method 9 2.2 The use of variables to represent displacement and time 9 2.3 Representation of data 10 2.4 The use of differentiation in analysis: velocity and acceleration in linear motion 13 2.5 The use of integration in analysis 16 2.6 Maximum and minimum values of physical variables: general linear motion 21 2.7 Angular motion: the radian 22 2.8 The role of mathematics in physics 24 Worked examples 25 Chapter 2 problems (up.ucc.ie/2/) 27 3 The causes of motion: dynamics 29 3.1 The concept of force 29 3.2 The First law of Dynamics (Newton's first law) 30 3.3 The fundamental dynamical principle (Newton's second law) 31 3.4 Systems of units: SI 33 3.5 Time dependent forces: oscillatory motion 37 3.6 Simple harmonic motion 39 3.7 Mechanical work and energy 42 3.8 Plots of potential energy functions 45 3.9 Power 46 3.10 Energy in simple harmonic motion 47 3.11 Dissipative forces: damped harmonic motion 48 3.11.1 Trial solution technique for solving the damped harmonic motion equation (up.ucc.ie/3/11/1/) 50 3.12 Forced oscillations (up.ucc.ie/3/12/) 51 3.13 Non-linear dynamics: chaos (up.ucc.ie/3/13/) 52 3.14 Phase space representation of dynamical systems (up.ucc.ie/3/14/) 52 Worked examples 52 Chapter 3 problems (up.ucc.ie/3/) 56 4 Motion in two and three dimensions 57 4.1 Vector physical quantities 57 4.2 Vector algebra 58 4.3 Velocity and acceleration vectors 62 4.4 Force as a vector quantity: vector form of the laws of dynamics 63 4.5 Constraint forces 64 4.6 Friction 66 4.7 Motion in a circle: centripetal force 68 4.8 Motion in a circle at constant speed 69 4.9 Tangential and radial components of acceleration 71 4.10 Hybrid motion: the simple pendulum 71 4.10.1 Large angle corrections for the simple pendulum (up.ucc.ie/4/10/1/) 72 4.11 Angular quantities as vector: the cross product 72 Worked examples 75 Chapter 4 problems (up.ucc.ie/4/) 78 5 Force fields 79 5.1 Newton's law of universal gravitation 79 5.2 Force fields 80 5.3 The concept of flux 81 5.4 Gauss's law for gravitation 82 5.5 Applications of Gauss's law 84 5.6 Motion in a constant uniform field: projectiles 86 5.7 Mechanical work and energy 88 5.8 Power 93 5.9 Energy in a constant uniform field 94 5.10 Energy in an inverse square law field 94 5.11 Moment of a force: angular momentum 97 5.12 Planetary motion: circular orbits 98 5.13 Planetary motion: elliptical orbits and Kepler's laws 99 5.13.1 Conservation of the Runge-Lens vector (up.ucc.ie/5/13/1/) 100 Worked examples 101 Chapter 5 problems (up.ucc.ie/5/) 104 6 Many-body interactions 105 6.1 Newton's third law 105 6.2 The principle of conservation of momentum 108 6.3 Mechanical energy of systems of particles 109 6.4 Particle decay 110 6.5 Particle collisions 111 6.6 The centre of mass of a system of particles 115 6.7 The two-body problem: reduced mass 116 6.8 Angular momentum of a system of particles 119 6.9 Conservation principles in physics 120 Worked examples 121 Chapter 6 problems (up.ucc.ie/6/) 125 7 Rigid body dynamics 127 7.1 Rigid bodies 127 7.2 Rigid bodies in equilibrium: statics 128 7.3 Torque 129 7.4 Dynamics of rigid bodies 130 7.5 Measurement of torque: the torsion balance 131 7.6 Rotation of a rigid body about a fixed axis: moment of inertia 132 7.7 Calculation of moments of inertia: the parallel axis theorem 133 7.8 Conservation of angular momentum of rigid bodies 135 7.9 Conservation of mechanical energy in rigid body systems 136 7.10 Work done by a torque: torsional oscillations: rotational power 138 7.11 Gyroscopic motion 140 7.11.1 Precessional angular velocity of a top (up.ucc.ie/7/11/1/) 141 7.12 Summary: connection between rotational and translational motions 141 Worked examples 141 Chapter 7 problems (up.ucc.ie/7/) 144 8 Relative motion 145 8.1 Applicability of Newton's laws of motion: inertial reference frames 145 8.2 The Galilean transformation 146 8.3 The CM (centre-of-mass) reference frame 149 8.4 Example of a non-inertial frame: centrifugal force 153 8.5 Motion in a rotating frame: the Coriolis force 155 8.6 The Foucault pendulum 158 8.6.1 Precession of a Foucault pendulum (up.ucc.ie/8/6/1/) 158 8.7 Practical criteria for inertial frames: the local view 158 Worked examples 159 Chapter 8 problems (up.ucc.ie/8/) 163 9 Special relativity 165 9.1 The velocity of light 165 9.1.1 The Michelson-Morley experiment (up.ucc.ie/9/1/1/) 165 9.2 The principle of relativity 166 9.3 Consequences of the principle of relativity 166 9.4 The Lorentz transformation 168 9.5 The Fitzgerald-Lorentz contraction 171 9.6 Time dilation 172 9.7 Paradoxes in special relativity 173 9.7.1 Simultaneity: quantitative analysis of the twin paradox (up.ucc.ie/9/7/1/) 174 9.8 Relativistic transformation of velocity 174 9.9 Momentum in relativistic mechanics 176 9.10 Four-vectors: the energy-momentum 4-vector 177 9.11 Energy-momentum transformations: relativistic energy conservation 179 9.11.1 The force transformations (up.ucc.ie/9/11/1/) 180 9.12 Relativistic energy: mass-energy equivalence 180 9.13 Units in relativistic mechanics 183 9.14 Mass-energy equivalence in practice 184 9.15 General relativity 185 Worked examples 185 Chapter 9 problems (up.ucc.ie/9/) 188 10 Continuum mechanics: mechanical properties of materials: microscopic models of matter 189 10.1 Dynamics of continuous media 189 10.2 Elastic properties of solids 190 10.3 Fluids at rest 193 10.4 Elastic properties of fluids 195 10.5 Pressure in gases 196 10.6 Archimedes' principle 196 10.7 Fluid dynamics; the Bernoulli equation 198 10.8 Viscosity 201 10.9 Surface properties of liquids 202 10.10 Boyle's law (or Mariotte's law) 204 10.11 A microscopic theory of gases 205 10.12 The SI unit of amount of substance; the mole 207 10.13 Interatomic forces: modifications to the kinetic theory of gases 208 10.14 Microscopic models of condensed matter systems 210 Worked examples 212 Chapter 10 problems (up.ucc.ie/10/) 214 11 Thermal physics 215 11.1 Friction and heating 215 11.2 The SI unit of thermodynamic temperature, the kelvin 216 11.3 Heat capacities of thermal systems 216 11.4 Comparison of specific heat capacities: calorimetry 218 11.5 Thermal conductivity 219 11.6 Convection 220 11.7 Thermal radiation 221 11.8 Thermal expansion 222 11.9 The first law of thermodynamics 224 11.10 Change of phase: latent heat 225 11.11 The equation of state of an ideal gas 226 11.12 Isothermal, isobaric and adiabatic processes: free expansion 227 11.13 The Carnot cycle 230 11.14 Entropy and the second law of thermodynamics 231 11.15 The Helmholtz and Gibbs functions 233 Worked examples 234 Chapter 11 problems (up.ucc.ie/11/) 236 12 Microscopic models of thermal systems: kinetic theory of matter 237 12.1 Microscopic interpretation of temperature 237 12.2 Polyatomic molecules: principle of equipartition of energy 239 12.3 Ideal gas in a gravitational field: the 'law of atmospheres' 241 12.4 Ensemble averages and distribution functions 242 12.5 The distribution of molecular velocities in an ideal gas 243 12.6 Distribution of molecular speeds 244 12.7 Distribution of molecular energies; Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics 246 12.8 Microscopic interpretation of temperature and heat capacity in solids 247 Worked examples 248 Chapter 12 problems (up.ucc.ie/12/) 249 13 Wave motion 251 13.1 Characteristics of wave motion 251 13.2 Representation of a wave which is travelling in one dimension 253 13.3 Energy and power in wave motion 255 13.4 Plane and spherical waves 256 13.5 Huygens' principle: the laws of reflection and refraction 257 13.6 Interference between waves 259 13.7 Interference of waves passing through openings: diffraction 263 13.8 Standing waves 265 13.8.1 Standing waves in a three dimensional cavity (up.ucc.ie/13/8/1/) 267 13.9 The Doppler effect 268 13.10 The wave equation 270 13.11 Waves along a string 270 13.12 Waves in elastic media: longitudinal waves in a solid rod 271 13.13 Waves in elastic media: sound waves in gases 272 13.14 Superposition of two waves of slightly different frequencies: wave and group velocities 274 13.15 Other wave forms: Fourier analysis 275 Worked examples 279 Chapter 13 problems (up.ucc.ie/13/) 280 14 Introduction to quantum mechanics 281 14.1 Physics at the beginning of the twentieth century 281 14.2 The blackbody radiation problem: Planck's quantum hypothesis 282 14.3 The specific heat capacity of gases 284 14.4 The specific heat capacity of solids 284 14.5 The photoelectric effect 285 14.5.1 Example of an experiment to study the photoelectric effect (up.ucc.ie/14/5/1/) 285 14.6 The X-ray continuum 287 14.7 The Compton effect: the photon model 287 14.8 The de Broglie hypothesis: wave-particle duality 290 14.9 Interpretation of wave particle duality 292 14.10 The Heisenberg uncertainty principle 293 14.11 The Schroedinger (wave mechanical) method 295 14.12 Probability density; expectation values 296 14.12.1 Expectation value of momentum (up.ucc.ie/14/12/1/) 297 14.13 The free particle 298 14.14 The time-independent Schroedinger equation: eigenfunctions and eigenvalues 300 14.14.1 Derivation of the Ehrenfest theorem (up.ucc.ie/14/14/1/) 301 14.15 The infinite square potential well 303 14.16 Potential steps 305 14.17 Other potential wells and barriers 311 14.18 The simple harmonic oscillator 313 14.18.1 Ground state of the simple harmonic oscillator (up.ucc.ie/14/18/1/) 313 14.19 Further implications of quantum mechanics 313 Worked examples 314 Chapter 14 problems (up.ucc.ie/14/) 316 15 Electric currents 317 15.1 Electric currents 317 15.2 The electric current model; electric charge 318 15.3 The SI unit of electric current; the ampere 320 15.4 Heating effect revisited; electrical resistance 321 15.5 Strength of a power supply; emf 323 15.6 Resistance of a circuit 324 15.7 Potential difference 324 15.8 Effect of internal resistance 326 15.9 Comparison of emfs; the potentiometer 328 15.10 Multiloop circuits 329 15.11 Kirchhoff's rules 330 15.12 Comparison of resistances; the Wheatstone bridge 331 15.13 Power supplies connected in parallel 332 15.14 Resistivity and conductivity 333 15.15 Variation of resistance with temperature 334 Worked examples 335 Chapter 15 problems (up.ucc.ie/15/) 338 16 Electric fields 339 16.1 Electric charges at rest 339 16.2 Electric fields: electric field strength 341 16.3 Forces between point charges: Coulomb's law 342 16.4 Electric flux and electric flux density 343 16.5 Electric fields due to systems of charges 344 16.6 The electric dipole 346 16.7 Gauss's law for electrostatics 349 16.8 Applications of Gauss's law 349 16.9 Potential difference in electric fields 352 16.10 Electric potential 353 16.11 Equipotential surfaces 355 16.12 Determination of electric field strength from electric potential 356 16.13 Acceleration of charged particles 357 16.14 The laws of electrostatics in differential form (up.ucc.ie/16/14) 358 Worked examples 359 Chapter 16 problems (up.ucc.ie/16/) 361 17 Electric fields in materials; the capacitor 363 17.1 Conductors in electric fields 363 17.2 Insulators in electric fields; polarization 364 17.3 Electric susceptibility 367 17.4 Boundaries between dielectric media 368 17.5 Ferroelectricity and paraelectricity; permanently polarised materials 369 17.6 Uniformly polarised rod; the 'bar electret' 370 17.7 Microscopic models of electric polarization 372 17.8 Capacitors 373 17.9 Examples of capacitors with simple geometry 374 17.10 Energy stored in an electric field 376 17.11 Capacitors in series and in parallel 377 17.12 Charge and discharge of a capacitor through a resistor 378 17.13 Measurement of permittivity 379 Worked examples 380 Chapter 17 problems (up.ucc.ie/17/) 382 18 Magnetic fields 383 18.1 Magnetism 383 18.2 The work of Ampere, Biot, and Savart 385 18.3 Magnetic pole strength 386 18.4 Magnetic field strength 387 18.5 Ampere's law 388 18.6 The Biot-Savart law 390 18.7 Applications of the Biot-Savart law 392 18.8 Magnetic flux and magnetic flux density 393 18.9 Magnetic fields of permanent magnets; magnetic dipoles 394 18.10 Forces between magnets; Gauss's law for magnetism 395 18.11 The laws of magnetostatics in differential form (up.ucc.ie/18/11/) 396 Worked examples 396 Chapter 18 problems (up.ucc.ie/18/) 397 19 Interactions between magnetic fields and electric currents; magnetic materials 399 19.1 Forces between currents and magnets 399 19.2 The force between two long parallel wires 400 19.3 Current loop in a magnetic field 401 19.4 Magnetic fields due to moving charges 403 19.5 Force on a moving electric charge in a magnetic field 403 19.6 Applications of moving charges in uniform magnetic fields; the classical Hall effect 404 19.7 Charge in a combined electric and magnetic field; the Lorentz force 407 19.8 Magnetic dipole moments of charged particles in closed orbits 407 19.9 Polarisation of magnetic materials; magnetisation, magnetic susceptibility 408 19.10 Paramagnetism and diamagnetism 409 19.11 Boundaries between magnetic media 411 19.12 Ferromagnetism; permanent magnets revisited 411 19.13 Moving coil meters and electric motors 412 19.14 Electric and magnetic fields in moving reference frames (up.ucc.ie/19/14/) 414 Worked examples 414 Chapter 19 problems (up.ucc.ie/19) 416 20 Electromagnetic induction: time-varying emfs 417 20.1 The principle of electromagnetic induction 417 20.2 Simple applications of electromagnetic induction 420 20.3 Self-inductance 421 20.4 The series L-R circuit 424 20.5 Discharge of a capacitor through an inductor and a resistor 425 20.6 Time-varying emfs: mutual inductance: transformers 427 20.7 Alternating current (a.c.) 429 20.8 Alternating current transformers 432 20.9 Resistance, capacitance, and inductance in a.c. circuits 433 20.10 The series L-C-R circuit: phasor diagrams 435 20.11 Power in an a.c. circuit 438 Worked examples 439 Chapter 20 problems (up.ucc.ie/20/) 441 21 Maxwell's equations: electromagnetic radiation 443 21.1 Reconsideration of the laws of electromagnetism: Maxwell's equations 443 21.2 Plane electromagnetic waves 446 21.3 Experimental observation of electromagnetic radiation 448 21.4 The electromagnetic spectrum 449 21.5 Polarisation of electromagnetic waves 451 21.6 Energy, momentum and angular momentum in electromagnetic waves 454 21.7 The photon model revisited 457 21.8 Reflection of electromagnetic waves at an interface between non-conducting media (up.ucc.ie/21/8/) 458 21.9 Electromagnetic waves in a conducting medium (up.ucc.ie/21/9/) 458 21.10 Invariance of electromagnetism under the Lorentz transformation (up.ucc.ie/21/10/) 458 21.11 Maxwell's equations in differential form (up.ucc.ie/21/11/) 458 Worked examples 459 Chapter 21 problems (up.ucc.ie/21/) 461 22 Wave optics 463 22.1 Electromagnetic nature of light 463 22.2 Coherence: the laser 465 22.3 Diffraction at a single slit 467 22.4 Two slit interference and diffraction: Young's double slit experiment 470 22.5 Multiple slit interference: the diffraction grating 472 22.6 Diffraction of X-rays: Bragg scattering 475 22.7 The SI unit of luminous intensity, the candela 478 Worked examples 479 Chapter 22 problems (up.ucc.ie/22/) 480 23 Geometrical optics 481 23.1 The ray model: geometrical optics 481 23.2 Reflection of light 481 23.3 Image formation by spherical mirrors 482 23.4 Refraction of light 485 23.5 Refraction at successive plane interfaces 489 23.6 Image formation by spherical lenses 491 23.7 Image formation of extended objects: magnification; telescopes and microscopes 495 23.8 Dispersion of light 497 Worked examples 498 Chapter 23 problems (up.ucc.ie/23/) 501 24 Atomic physics 503 24.1 Atomic models 503 24.2 The spectrum of hydrogen: the Rydberg formula 505 24.3 The Bohr postulates 506 24.4 The Bohr theory of the hydrogen atom 507 24.5 The quantum mechanical (Schroedinger) solution of the one-electron atom 510 24.5.1 The angular and radial equations for a one-electron atom (up.ucc.ie/24/5/1/) 513 24.5.2 The radial solutions of the lowest energy state of hydrogen (up.ucc.ie/24/5/2/) 513 24.6 Interpretation of the one-electron atom eigenfunctions 514 24.7 Intensities of spectral lines: selection rules 517 24.7.1 Radiation from an accelerated charge (up.ucc.ie/24/7/1/) 518 24.7.2 Expectation value of the electric dipole moment (up.ucc.ie/24/7/2/) 518 24.8 Quantisation of angular momentum 518 24.8.1 The angular momentum quantisation equations (up.ucc.ie/24/8/1/) 519 24.9 Magnetic effects in one-electron atoms: the Zeeman effect 520 24.10 The Stern-Gerlach experiment: electron spin 521 24.10.1 The Zeeman effect (up.ucc.ie/24/10/1/) 523 24.11 The spin-orbit interaction 523 24.11.1 The Thomas precession (up.ucc.ie/24/11/1/) 524 24.12 Identical particles in quantum mechanics: the Pauli exclusion principle 525 24.13 The periodic table: multielectron atoms 526 24.14 The theory of multielectron atoms 529 24.15 Further uses of the solutions of the one-electron atom 529 Worked examples 530 Chapter 24 problems (up.ucc.ie/24/) 532 25 Electrons in solids: quantum statistics 533 25.1 Bonding in molecules and solids 533 25.2 The classical free electron model of solids 537 25.3 The quantum mechanical free electron model: the Fermi energy 539 25.4 The electron energy distribution at 0 K 541 25.5 Electron energy distributions at T>0 K 544 25.5.1 The quantum distribution functions (up.ucc.ie/24/5/1/) 544 25.6 Specific heat capacity and conductivity in the quantum free electron model 544 25.7 Quantum statistics: systems of bosons 546 25.8 Superconductivity 547 Worked examples 548 Chapter 25 problems (up.ucc.ie/25/) 549 26 Semiconductors 551 26.1 The band theory of solids 551 26.2 Conductors, insulators and semiconductors 552 26.3 Intrinsic and extrinsic (doped) semiconductors 553 26.4 Junctions in conductors 555 26.5 Junctions in semiconductors; the p-n junction 556 26.6 Biased p-n junctions; the semiconductor diode 557 26.7 Photodiodes, particle detectors and solar cells 558 26.8 Light emitting diodes; semiconductor lasers 559 26.9 The tunnel diode 560 26.10 Transistors 560 Worked examples 563 Chapter 26 problems (up.ucc.ie/26/) 564 27 Nuclear and particle physics 565 27.1 Properties of atomic nuclei 565 27.2 Nuclear binding energies 567 27.3 Nuclear models 568 27.4 Radioactivity 571 27.5 𝛼-, 𝛽- and 𝛾-decay 572 27.6 Detection of radiation: units of radioactivity 575 27.7 Nuclear reactions 577 27.8 Nuclear fission and nuclear fusion 578 27.9 Fission reactors 579 27.10 Thermonuclear fusion 581 27.11 Sub-nuclear particles 584 27.12 The quark model 587 Worked examples 591 Chapter 27 problems (up.ucc.ie/27/) 592 Appendix A: Mathematical rules and formulas 593 Appendix B: Some fundamental physical constants 611 Appendix C: Some astrophysical and geophysical data 613 Appendix D: The international system of units - SI 615 Bibliography 619 Index 621
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Guide to Understanding Physics; text on understanding physics; fundamentals of physics; applications of physics; mathematical tools of physics; data and physics; analysis of physics; mathematical examples of physics; dynamics of physics