Medical Instrumentation - Application and Design, Fifth Edition

Medical Instrumentation - Application and Design, Fifth Edition

John Wiley and Sons Ltd

07/2020

928

Dura

Inglês

9781119457336

15 a 20 dias

1266

Descrição não disponível.
Acknowledgments xiii Preface xv List of Symbols xviii 1 Basic Concepts of Medical Instrumentation 1 Walter H. Olson and John G. Webster 1.1 Terminology of Medicine and Medical Devices 2 1.2 Generalized Medical Instrumentation System 3 1.3 Alternative Operational Modes 5 1.4 Medical Measurement Constraints 7 1.5 Classifications of Biomedical Instruments 10 1.6 Interfering and Modifying Inputs 10 1.7 Compensation Techniques 12 1.8 Biostatistics 14 1.9 Generalized Static Characteristics 18 1.10 Generalized Dynamic Characteristics 26 1.11 Amplifiers and Signal Processing 40 1.12 Inverting Amplifiers 42 1.13 Noninverting Amplifiers 45 1.14 Differential Amplifiers 47 1.15 Comparators 53 1.16 Rectifiers 55 1.17 Logarithmic Amplifiers 60 1.18 Integrators 61 1.19 Differentiators 62 1.20 Active Filters 64 1.21 Frequency Response 68 1.22 Offset Voltage 71 1.23 Bias Current 73 1.24 Input and Output Resistance 75 1.25 Design Criteria 77 1.26 Commercial Medical Instrumentation Development Process 77 1.27 Regulation of Medical Devices 80 Problems 85 References 89 2 Basic Sensors and Principles 91 Robert A. Peura and John G. Webster 2.1 Displacement Measurements 91 2.2 Resistive Sensors 92 2.3 Bridge Circuits 102 2.4 Inductive Sensors 104 2.5 Phase-Sensitive Demodulators 107 2.6 Capacitive Sensors 110 2.7 Piezoelectric Sensors 113 2.8 Accelerometer 119 2.9 Temperature Measurements 119 2.10 Thermocouples 120 2.11 Thermistors 123 2.12 Radiation Thermometry 128 2.13 Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensors 133 2.14 Optical Measurements 133 2.15 Radiation Sources 135 2.16 Geometrical and Fiber Optics 140 2.17 Optical Filters 143 2.18 Radiation Sensors 144 2.19 Optical Combinations 148 Problems 148 References 150 3 Microcontrollers in Medical Instrumentation 153 Amit J. Nimunkar 3.1 Basics of Microcontroller 153 3.2 Embedded Medical System 154 3.3 ECG-Based Embedded Medical System Example 156 3.4 Selection of a Microcontroller 161 3.5 IoT-Based Medical Devices 188 Problems 191 References 193 4 The Origin of Biopotentials 196 John W. Clark, Jr. 4.1 Electrical Activity of Excitable Cells 197 4.2 Volume Conductor Fields 206 4.3 Functional Organization of the Peripheral Nervous System 209 4.4 The Electroneurogram 211 4.5 The Electromyogram 216 4.6 The Electrocardiogram 219 4.7 The Electroretinogram 232 4.8 The Electroencephalogram 238 4.9 The Magnetoencephalogram 259 Problems 260 References 264 5 Biopotential Electrodes 267 Michael R. Neuman 5.1 The Electrode-Electrolyte Interface 268 5.2 Polarization 271 5.3 Polarizable and Nonpolarizable Electrodes 275 5.4 Electrode Behavior and Circuit Models 282 5.5 The Electrode-Skin Interface and Motion Artifact 285 5.6 Body-Surface Recording Electrodes 289 5.7 Internal Electrodes 302 5.8 Electrode Arrays 309 5.9 Microelectrodes 311 5.10 Electrodes for Electric Stimulation of Tissue 320 5.11 Practical Hints in Using Electrodes 323 Problems 325 References 329 6 Biopotential Amplifiers 333 Michael R. Neuman 6.1 Basic Requirements 333 6.2 The Electrocardiograph 335 6.3 Problems Frequently Encountered 348 6.4 Transient Protection 358 6.5 Common-Mode and Other Interference-Reduction Circuits 361 6.6 Amplifiers for Other Biopotential Signals 365 6.7 Example of a Biopotential Preamplifier 370 6.8 Other Biopotential Signal Processors 372 6.9 Cardiac Monitors 381 6.10 Biotelemetry 389 Problems 391 References 394 7 Blood Pressure and Sound 396 Robert A. Peura 7.1 Direct Measurements 399 7.2 Harmonic Analysis of Blood Pressure Waveforms 403 7.3 Dynamic Properties of Pressure-Measurement Systems 405 7.4 Measurement of System Response 414 7.5 Effects of System Parameters on Response 418 7.6 Bandwidth Requirements for Measuring Blood Pressure 419 7.7 Typical Pressure-Waveform Distortion 420 7.8 Systems for Measuring Venous Pressure 422 7.9 Heart Sounds 422 7.10 Phonocardiography 428 7.11 Cardiac Catheterization 428 7.12 Effects of Potential and Kinetic Energy on Pressure Measurements 433 7.13 Indirect Measurements of Blood Pressure 435 7.14 Tonometry 442 Problems 448 References 450 8 Measurement of Flow and Volume of Blood 452 John G. Webster 8.1 Indicator-Dilution Method that Uses Continuous Infusion 453 8.2 Indicator-Dilution Method that Uses Rapid Injection 455 8.3 Electromagnetic Flowmeters 459 8.4 Ultrasonic Flowmeters 467 8.5 Thermal-Convection Velocity Sensors 481 8.6 Chamber Plethysmography 484 8.7 Electrical-Impedance Plethysmography 486 8.8 Photoplethysmography 493 Problems 495 References 497 9 Measurements of the Respiratory System 499 Frank P. Primiano, Jr. 9.1 Modeling the Respiratory System 501 9.2 Measurement of Pressure 508 9.3 Measurement of Gas Flow 511 9.4 Lung Volume 520 9.5 Respiratory Plethysmography 528 9.6 Some Tests of Respiratory Mechanics 535 9.7 Measurement of Gas Concentration 548 9.8 Some Tests of Gas Transport 560 Problems 568 References 571 10 Chemical Biosensors 574 Robert A. Peura 10.1 Blood-Gas and Acid-Base Physiology 576 10.2 Electrochemical Sensors 580 10.3 Chemical Fibrosensors 589 10.4 Ion-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistor (ISFET) 606 10.5 Immunologically Sensitive Field-Effect Transistor (IMFET) 609 10.6 Noninvasive Blood-Gas Monitoring 610 10.7 Blood-Glucose Sensors 620 10.8 Electronic Noses 630 10.9 Lab-on-a-chip 631 10.10 Summary 632 Problems 633 References 633 11 Clinical Laboratory Instrumentation 637 Lawrence A. Wheeler 11.1 Spectrophotometry 638 11.2 Automated Chemical Analyzers 649 11.3 Chromatology 653 11.4 Electrophoresis 656 11.5 Hematology 659 Problems 671 References 671 12 Medical Imaging Systems 673 Melvin P. Siedband 12.1 Information Content of an Image 674 12.2 Modulation Transfer Function 678 12.3 Noise-Equivalent Bandwidth 680 12.4 Image Processing 681 12.5 Radiography 682 12.6 Computed Radiography 690 12.7 Computed Tomography 697 12.8 Magnetic Resonance Imaging 707 12.9 Nuclear Medicine 714 12.10 Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography 722 12.11 Positron Emission Tomography 723 12.12 Ultrasonography 728 12.13 Contrast Agents 740 Problems 742 References 744 13 Therapeutic and Prosthetic Devices 746 Michael R. Neuman 13.1 Cardiac Pacemakers and Other Electric Stimulators 746 13.2 Defibrillators and Cardioverters 764 13.3 Mechanical Cardiovascular Orthotic and Prosthetic Devices 771 13.4 Hemodialysis 775 13.5 Lithotripsy 778 13.6 Ventilators 780 13.7 Infant Incubators 784 13.8 Drug Delivery Devices 786 13.9 Surgical Instruments 793 13.10 Therapeutic Applications of the Laser 797 Problems 798 References 800 14 Electrical Safety 803 Walter H. Olson 14.1 Physiological Effects of Electricity 804 14.2 Important Susceptibility Parameters 807 14.3 Distribution of Electric Power 813 14.4 Macroshock Hazards 818 14.5 Microshock Hazards 822 14.6 Electrical-Safety Codes and Standards 827 14.7 Basic Approaches to Protection Against Shock 829 14.8 Protection: Power Distribution 830 14.9 Protection: Equipment Design 833 14.10 Electrical-Safety Analyzers 838 14.11 Testing the Electric System 838 14.12 Tests of Electric Appliances 840 14.13 Conclusion 843 Problems 844 References 846 Appendix 848 A.1 Physical Constants 848 A.2 International System of Units (SI) Prefixes 848 A.3 International System of Units 849 A.4 Abbreviations 850 A.5 Chemical Elements 853 Index 855
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<p>medical instrumentation; medical instrumentation design; bioinstrumentation; biosensors; biotechnology; medical device; device design; microcontroller-based medical instrumentation; electrodes; MRI; pacemaker; defibrillator; ventilator; incubator; monitors; medical technology; biomedical engineering;reference on medical instrumentation; overview of medical instruments; basic concepts of medical instrumentation; interdisciplinary bioinstrumentation; material on infant apnea monitors; impedance pneumography information; cardiac pacemakers design; disposable defibrillator electrodes standards; biopotential electrodes; measuring the flow of blood; clinical lab instrumentation</p>