Introduction to Paleobiology and the Fossil Record

Introduction to Paleobiology and the Fossil Record

;

John Wiley and Sons Ltd

04/2020

656

Mole

Inglês

9781119272854

15 a 20 dias

1634

Descrição não disponível.
Preface xi Acknowledgments xiii 1 Paleontology as a science 1 Introduction 2 Paleontology in the modern world 2 Paleontology as a science 3 Steps to understanding 12 Fossils and evolution 16 Paleontology today 17 Review questions 23 Further reading 23 References 24 2 Stratigraphy 25 Introduction 26 How stratigraphy works 26 New techniques, new tools 40 Geological time scale: a common language 46 Extraterrestrial stratigraphy 47 Review questions 48 Further reading 48 References 49 3 Paleogeography and paleoclimates 50 Paleobiogeography 50 Fossils in mountain belts 64 Paleoclimates 69 The Anthropocene 76 Review questions 77 Further reading 77 References 77 4 Paleoecology 80 Introduction 81 Taphonomic constraints: sifting through the debris 83 Populations: can groups of individuals make a difference? 85 Habitats and niches 86 Paleocommunities 95 Evolutionary paleoecology 100 Ecological ranking of mass extinctions 110 Full contents vii Review questions 112 Further reading 112 References 112 5 Taphonomy and the quality of the fossil record 115 Introduction 116 Fossil preservation 116 Quality of the fossil record 130 Review questions 137 Further reading 138 References 138 6 Fossil form and function 140 Introduction 141 Growth and form 141 Evolution and development 147 Interpreting the function of fossils 152 Review questions 163 Further reading 164 References 164 7 Macroevolution and the tree of life 165 Introduction 166 Evolution by natural selection 167 Evolution and the fossil record 170 Trends and radiations 179 The tree of life 184 Review questions 191 Further reading 191 References 191 8 Biodiversity, extinction, and mass extinction 193 Introduction 194 The diversification of life 195 Mass extinctions 202 The "big five" mass extinction events 207 Extinction then and now 215 Review questions 220 Further reading 220 References 221 9 The origin of life 223 Introduction 224 The origin of life 224 Evidence for the origin of life 228 Life diversifies: eukaryotes 236 Review questions 245 Further reading 246 References 246 10 Protists 248 Introduction 249 Protozoa 252 Mystery protists of the proterozoic and paleozoic 260 Phytoplankton 266 Review questions 277 Further reading 277 References 277 11 Origin and expansion of the metazoans 279 Origins and classification 280 Invertebrate body and skeletal plans 284 Five key faunas 289 Review questions 304 Further reading 304 References 304 12 The basal metazoans: sponges and corals 306 Introduction 307 Porifera 307 Cnidaria 322 Review questions 341 Further reading 342 References 342 13 Lophophorates 1: brachiopods and bryozoans 344 Introduction 345 Brachiopoda 345 Bryozoa 360 Review questions 369 Further reading 370 References 370 14 Lophotrochozoans 2: mollusks and annelids 372 Mollusks 372 Introduction 373 Early mollusks 375 Class Bivalvia 380 Class Gastropoda 384 Class Cephalopoda 390 Class Scaphopoda 403 Class Rostroconcha 403 Evolutionary trends within the Mollusca 404 Annelids 406 Review questions 410 Further reading 410 References 410 15 Ecdysozoa: arthropods 412 Introduction 413 Early arthropod faunas 413 Subphylum Trilobitomorpha (artiopoda) 416 Subphylum Chelicerata 428 Subphylum Myriapoda 430 Subphylum Hexapoda 430 Subphylum Crustacea 433 Exceptional arthropod faunas through time 438 Review questions 442 Further reading 442 References 443 16 Deuterostomes: echinoderms and hemichordates 445 Introduction 446 Echinoderms 446 Hemichordates 468 Review questions 484 Further reading 484 References 484 17 Fishes and basal tetrapods 486 Introduction 487 Origin of the vertebrates 487 Jaws and fish evolution 492 Tetrapods 498 Reign of the reptiles 503 Review questions 510 Further reading 510 References 511 18 Dinosaurs and mammals 512 Introduction 513 Dinosaurs and their kin 513 Bird evolution 521 Rise of the mammals 522 The line to humans 530 Review questions 536 Further reading 536 References 537 19 Fossil plants and fungi 538 Introduction 539 Terrestrialization of plants 539 The great coal forests 547 Seed-bearing plants 552 Flowering plants 562 Review questions 568 Further reading 568 References 568 20 Trace fossils 570 Introduction 571 Understanding trace fossils 571 Trace fossils in sediments 578 Review questions 592 Further reading 592 References 592 Finale 594 Glossary 598 Appendix 1: Stratigraphic chart 617 Appendix 2: Paleogeographic maps 619 Index 620
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basal metazoans; quality; tree; extinction; origin; expansion; sponges