Foundations of Colour Science

Foundations of Colour Science

From Colorimetry to Perception

John Wiley and Sons Ltd

07/2022

560

Dura

Inglês

9781119885917

Pré-lançamento - envio 15 a 20 dias após a sua edição

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1 Outline for readers in a hurry 1 I Light colour 81 2 Colour stimulus space and colour mechanisms 85 2.1 Grassmann structures and Grassmann colour codes 89 2.2 Continuous Grassmann structures and continuous Grassmann colour codes 97 3 Identification of Grassmann structures based on metameric matching 101 3.1 Colourmatching functions 102 3.2 Monochromatic primaries and colour matching functions in the trichromatic case (=3) 109 3.3 Fundamental colour mechanisms in human colour vision 112 3.3.1 Konig's approach to identification of the fundamental colourmechanisms 120 3.3.2 Some estimates of the cone fundamentals used in colour research and applications 123 4 Colour-signal cone 129 4.1 Strong colour-signal-cone-boundary hypothesis 133 4.2 Empirical status of the strong colour-signal-cone-boundary hypothesis 138 4.3 Colour-signal-cone-boundary hypothesis 145 4.4 The colour-signal cone of a 3-pigment Grassmann-Govardovskii structure 149 5 Colour stimulus manifold 153 5.1 Three-dimensional colour stimulusmanifold 155 5.2 Non-linear colour stimulus map Colour stimulus transformation caused by themedium 160 5.2.1 The colour stimulus shift caused by the medium variations 161 5.2.2 Colour robustness tomediumvariations 163 5.3 Causes of individual differences in trichromatic colour matching 165 5.3.1 Effect of the photopigment peak sensitivity on the-coordinates 166 5.3.2 Effect of the ocular media transmittance on -coordinates 171 5.3.3 Trade-off between the ocular media spectral transmittance and the photopigment peak sensitivity in their effect on colour 174 5.3.4 Dependence of the equivalent peak-wavelength shift on light Impossibility to overcome colour deficiency using a coloured filter 176 5.3.5 Parametric identification of fundamental colour mechanisms 180 6 Light metamerism 183 6.1 Metamer sets 184 6.2 Colour mechanisms' transformations preserving light metamerism 188 6.3 Lightmetamerismindex 190 7 Light metamer mismatching 191 7.1 Metamer-mismatch regions 191 7.2 Indices of lightmetamer mismatching 197 7.3 Computing trichromaticmetamer-mismatch regions 202 7.3.1 Effect of the spectral positioning of photopigments onmetamer mismatching 206 7.3.2 Effect of the peak photopigment absorbance on metamer mismatching 210 7.3.3 Metamer mismatching depending on the position in the chromaticity diagram 211 7.3.4 Metamer mismatching induced by pre-receptoral filters 211 7.3.5 Differences between cone fundamentals as revealed bymetamer mismatching 217 7.3.6 Metamer mismatching for the 10 colour matching functions of Stiles and Burch 221 7.3.7 Metamer mismatching induced by neutral density filters 234 7.3.8 Metamer mismatching produced by camera sensors 238 8 Light-colour perception 243 8.1 Achromatic scales and achromatic codes 248 8.1.1 Ordinal brightness scales 249 8.1.2 Grassmann brightness code Luminance 254 8.2 Hue, purity, and brightness fibre bundles Cylindrical and psychophysical colour coordinates 262 8.3 Colour transformation caused by media and metamer mismatching, as expressed in the psychophysical colour coordinates 270 8.4 Light-colour perception in dichromats 273 8.5 Chromatic structures 280 8.5.1 Partial hue-matching 283 8.5.2 Experiment on partial hue-matching 289 8.5.3 Colour categories 292 8.5.4 Chromatically ordered structures 297 8.5.5 Chromatic scales and chromatic codes 299 8.5.6 Hue, purity and saturation in chromatic structures 301 8.6 Light-colour manifold 304 8.6.1 Hue cyclic order 305 8.6.2 Light-colour manifold 308 8.6.3 Circular Hering structures, their representation and experimental identification 311 8.6.4 Light-colour manifold vs colour stimulus manifold 321 9 Typology of light-colour perception Inter-individual differences 329 10 Colour matching structures and matching metamerism 341 10.1 Colourmatching structures 347 10.2 Matchingmetamerism 358 11 Identification of Grassmann structures induced by colour matching structures 363 11.1 Colour matching set, threshold set, and sensitivity function 364 11.2 Regular and strongly regular tolerance extensions 368 11.3 Identification of Grassmann structures induced by colour matching tolerance relations 371 11.3.1 Identification of the linear colour mechanism space as a subspace in the linear span of a given set of linearly independent functionals 372 11.3.2 Deriving the linear colour mechanism space from the colour matching set (the method of tangential hyperplane 378 11.3.3 Deriving the fundamental colour mechanisms from the colour matching set that they generate (the method of quadratic approximation) 383 12 Identification of indiscriminate relations Colour detection and discrimination 391 12.1 Colour detectionmodels 394 12.1.1 Single-channel detectionmodels 394 12.1.2 Fundamental colour mechanisms revisited 397 12.1.3 Multi-channel detectionmodels 399 12.2 Peak-detector model equivalent to a sublinear colour detectionmodel 400 12.2.1 Sublinear colour detectionmodels 401 12.2.2 Multi-channel sublinearmodels 402 12.2.3 Themost sensitive colour mechanisms 404 12.3 Colour discriminationmodels 409 13 In search of colour mechanisms in the eye and the brain 413 13.1 Do the cone photoreceptor responses encode the colour stimulus? 413 13.1.1 Local non-linearity of the photoreceptor response 414 13.1.2 Light adaptation in photoreceptors 415 13.1.3 Spatial interaction between the cone photoreceptors 417 13.1.4 Why the colour stimulus cannot be derived from the cone photoreceptor responses 417 13.2 Do cone-opponent neural cells encode the opponent chromatic codes? 418 13.3 Transition to a different paradigm 425 13.3.1 From symmetric to asymmetric colour matching 425 13.3.2 Fromlight stimulus to light-stimulus array 428 13.3.3 On the notion of "neural image" 430 13.4 Spatio-chromatic processing in the visual cortex 436 13.4.1 Estimating luminance-pattern gradient using simple cortical cells 436 13.4.2 Directional gradient-encoding with double-opponent cells 446 13.4.3 Difference in spatial sensitivity of (M+L)-, (M-L)-, and S-(M+L)-cells, and its implication for colour perception 449 13.4.4 Representation of the colour-signal surface in the form of its tangent bundle 450 Object colour 458 14 Object-colour solid 465 14.1 General properties of the object-colour solid 466 14.2 Optimal object stimuli 468 14.3 Elementary step functions as optimal object stimuli 470 14.4 Optimal object stimuli for trichromatic human observers 472 14.5 Condition for all step functions of degree to be optimal object stimuli 472 15 Trichromatic regular object-colour solid 475 15.1 Meridians of the trichromatic regular object-colour solid 475 15.2 Equator of the trichromatic object-colour solid and strictly optimal object stimuli 481 16 Object-colour stimulus manifold 489 16.1 Objectmetamerism 489 16.2 Object atlas 493 16.3 Object-colour stimulus manifold Illuminant-induced nonlinear object-colour stimulusmap 496 16.4 Trichromatic object-colour stimulusmanifold 497 16.4.1 Trichromatic regular object-colour stimulus manifold and its spherical representation 497 16.4.2 Spherical representation of the trichromatic objectcolour stimulus manifold and the object-colour stimulus gamut 502 16.4.3 Object-colour stimulus shift induced by the illuminant change 504 17 Object-colour perception in a single-illuminant scene 507 17.1 Perceptual object-colour coordinates 513 17.2 Perceptual correlates of coordinates 516 17.3 Effect of illumination on object-colour in a single-illuminant scene: Object-colour shift induced by illumination 521 17.4 Object-colour perception by dichromats in a single-illuminant scene 524 18 Object metamer mismatching 535 18.1 Metamer-mismatch regions 535 18.2 Numerical evaluation ofmetamer-mismatch regions 539 18.3 Indices of objectmetamer mismatching 542 18.4 Object-metamerism-preserving transformations of colour mechanisms 545 19 Object-colour perception in a multiple-illuminant scene 549 19.1 Object/light colour equivalence and its inseparability 554 19.2 Object/light atlas 556 19.3 Object/light colour stimulusmanifold 557 19.3.1 Asymmetric colourmatching 557 19.3.2 Material colour 561 19.3.3 Lighting colour 562 19.3.4 Object/light colour stimulus manifold Material and lighting components of object/light colour stimulus manifold Material- and lighting-colour coordinates 564 19.4 Material colour shift induced by illumination change Implication for the problemof "colour constancy" 569 20 Object-colour indeterminacy 573 20.1 Trade-off between object and light components 573 20.2 Trade-off betweenmaterial and lighting colours 579 20.2.1 Invariant relationship between lightness and lighting brightness 581 20.2.2 Invariant relationship between lightness, lighting brightness and shading brightness 586 20.2.3 Shading as a sensory basis of shape 588 20.2.4 Invariant relationship between material-colour image and lighting-colour image in the chromatic domain 590 20.3 Object-colour indeterminacy in variegated scenes Impact of articulation 591 20.4 Implication for measuring object-colour 594 21 On perception in general: An outline of an alternative approach 601 21.1 What is colour for? 603 21.2 The need for a new approach to perception: Linguistic metaphor 607 22 Epilogue 619 References 623 A Some auxiliary facts from functional analysis 649 A.1 Banach spaces of measures and functions, and stimulus spaces 649 A.2 Convex analysis 652 B Proofs 657
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colour atlas, colour vision; colour perception; convex analysis; colorimetry; measurement theory; colour detection; colour discrimination; colour science; colour appearance;; mathematical colour theory, object-colour solid, colour space, colour constancy, metamerism, colour gamut, colour illusions, hue scaling, gradient encoding