Cyber-physical Systems: Theory, Methodology and Applications

Cyber-physical Systems: Theory, Methodology and Applications

John Wiley and Sons Ltd

05/2022

288

Dura

Inglês

9781119785163

15 a 20 dias

530

Descrição não disponível.
Preface xi 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Cyber-Physical Systems in 2020 1 1.2 Need for a General Theory 3 1.3 Historical Highlights: Control Theory, Information Theory, and Cybernetics 6 1.4 Philosophical Background 9 1.5 Book Structure 14 1.6 Summary 15 Exercises 15 References 16 Part I 19 2 System21 2.1 Introduction 21 2.2 Systems Engineering 22 2.3 Demarcation of Specific Systems 24 2.4 Classification of Systems 28 2.4.1 Natural and Human-Made Systems 29 2.4.2 Material and Conceptual Systems 29 2.4.3 Static and Dynamic Systems 30 2.4.4 Closed and Open Systems 31 2.5 Maxwell's Demon as a System 31 2.5.1 System Demarcation 33 2.5.2 Classification 33 2.5.3 Discussions 34 2.6 Summary 35 Exercises 36 References 37 3 Uncertainty 39 3.1 Introduction 39 3.2 Games and Uncertainty 40 3.3 Uncertainty and Probability Theory 45 3.4 Random Variables: Dependence and Stochastic Processes 56 3.5 Summary 63 Exercises 63 References 64 4 Information 67 4.1 Introduction 67 4.2 Data and Information 68 4.3 Information and Its Different Forms 75 4.3.1 Mathematical Information and Communication 76 4.3.2 Semantic Information 77 4.3.3 Biological Information 78 4.3.4 Physical Information 79 4.4 Physical and Symbolic Realities 79 4.5 Summary 82 Exercises 82 References 84 5 Network 87 5.1 Introduction 87 5.2 Network Types 92 5.2.1 Peer-to-Peer Networks 93 5.2.2 One-to-Many, Many-to-One, and Star Networks 93 5.2.3 Complete and Erdoes-Renyi Networks 94 5.2.4 Line, Ring, and Regular Networks 94 5.2.5 Watts-Strogatz, Barabasi-Albert and Other Networks 95 5.3 Processes on Networks and Applications 96 5.3.1 Communication Systems 97 5.3.2 Transportation in Cities 98 5.3.3 Virus Propagation and Epidemiology 99 5.4 Limitations 101 5.4.1 From (Big) Data to Mathematical Abstractions 101 5.4.2 From Mathematical Abstractions to Models of Physical Processes 103 5.4.3 Universality and Cross-Domain Issues 103 5.5 Summary 105 Exercises 105 References 106 6 Decisions and Actions 109 6.1 Introduction 109 6.2 Forms of Decision-Making 110 6.3 Optimization 113 6.4 Game Theory 117 6.5 Rule-Based Decisions 123 6.6 Limitations 124 6.7 Summary 126 Exercises 126 References 129 Part II 131 7 The Three Layers of Cyber-Physical Systems 133 7.1 Introduction 133 7.2 Physical Layer, Measuring, and Sensing Processes 137 7.3 Data Layer and Informing Processes 139 7.4 Decision Layer and Acting Processes 144 7.5 Self-developing Reflexive-Active System and Cyber-Physical Systems 145 7.6 Layer-Based Protocols and Cyber-Physical Systems Design 147 7.7 Summary 152 Exercises 152 References 153 8 Dynamics of Cyber-Physical Systems 155 8.1 Introduction 155 8.2 Dynamics of Cyber-Physical Systems 159 8.2.1 Elementary Cellular Automaton 159 8.2.2 Example of a Cyber-Physical System 163 8.2.3 Observable Attributes and Performance Metrics 164 8.2.4 Optimization 167 8.3 Failures and Layer-Based Attacks 170 8.4 Summary 174 Exercises 174 References 174 Part III 177 9 Enabling Information and Communication Technologies 179 9.1 Introduction 179 9.2 Data Networks and Wireless Communications 180 9.2.1 Network Layers and Their Protocols 181 9.2.2 Network: Edge and Core 185 9.2.3 IoT, Machine-Type Communications, and 5G 187 9.3 Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning 189 9.3.1 Machine Learning: Data, Model, and Loss Function 191 9.3.2 Formalizing and Solving a ML Problem 191 9.3.3 ML Methods 193 9.4 Decentralized Computing and Distributed Ledger Technology 194 9.4.1 Federated Learning and Decentralized Machine Learning 194 9.4.2 Blockchain and Distributed Ledger Technology 196 9.5 Future Technologies: A Look at the Unknown Future 198 9.5.1 Quantum Internet 198 9.5.2 Internet of Bio-Nano Things 199 9.5.3 After Moore's Law 200 9.6 Summary 202 Exercises 202 References 204 10 Applications 207 10.1 Introduction 207 10.2 Cyber-Physical Industrial System 209 10.2.1 Tennessee Eastman Process 209 10.2.2 Tennessee Eastman Process as a Cyber-Physical System 211 10.2.3 Example of Fault Detection in the TEP 214 10.3 Cyber-Physical Energy System 215 10.3.1 Electricity Power Grid as a System 216 10.3.2 Frequency Regulation by Smart Fridges 218 10.3.3 Challenges in Demand-Side Management in Cyber-Physical Energy Systems 222 10.4 Other Examples 223 10.4.1 Cyber-Physical Public Health Surveillance System 223 10.4.2 Mobile Application for Real-Time Traffic Routes 224 10.5 Summary 226 Exercises 227 References 230 11 Beyond Technology 233 11.1 Introduction 233 11.2 Governance Models 235 11.2.1 Markets 235 11.2.2 Central Planning 238 11.2.3 Commons 240 11.2.4 Final Remarks About Governance Models 245 11.3 Social Implications of the Cyber Reality 245 11.3.1 Data Ownership 245 11.3.2 Global Platforms 246 11.3.3 Fake News 247 11.3.4 Hybrid Warfare 248 11.4 The Cybersyn Project 251 11.5 Summary 253 Exercises 253 References 254 12 Closing Words 259 12.1 Strong Theory Leads to Informed Practices 260 12.2 Open Challenges in CPSs 261 12.3 CPSs and the Fourth Industrial Revolution 262 12.4 Building the Future 263 Exercises 263 Index 265
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cyber-physical systems; cyber-physical systems theory; cyber-physical systems applications; cyber-physical systems textbook; cyber-physical systems methodology; cyber-physical systems ICT; multi-agent systems; cyber-physical systems engineering